acne · acne care · milia · misc · pimple · Skin problem · skincare

Skin problems, how to handle, why it happens, and how to get clear skin

Pimple and Zits

Pimples and zits are a common skin condition called acne. About 70-90% of teens (girls and guys) will have some kind of acne breakout during their adolescent years. Here are some tips for taking care of your skin.


  1. Wash your skin twice a day (morning and before bed) with a mild soap-free cleanser to remove oil.
  2. Wash your face after you exercise as oil builds up and can clog pores.
  3. Wash your face well after you come in contact with oils or grease such as working in a fast food restaurant.
  4. Wash your hands before touching or rubbing your face and try not to rest your chin, cheek, or forehead on your hand. Just think of all of the things you may have touched during the day with your hands! Breaking this habit may help to clear up most of your problem areas.
  5. Wash your hair regularly especially if it’s oily. Oil from your hair can make your face and neck extra oily.
  6. Use “oil-free” sunscreen when you know you’ll be outside in the sun. Antibiotics and other acne medicine can make your skin burn faster with sun exposure.


  1. Don’t scrub your face or use harsh soaps; you can’t scrub acne away but you can make your acne worse if you are too rough when washing your face.
  2. Do not use alcohol based cleansing products. Products with a high percentage of alcohol can make your skin very dry and irritated. It can actually cause your body to make more oil that can result in more acne.
  3. Don’t pick, pop or squeeze pimples or anything on your face no matter how tempting! All that poking can cause more inflammation and possibly leave you with a scar.
  4. Do not use moisturizers or sunscreens that have oil in them. Look for a label that says “oil free” and make sure you use a “facial” moisturizer, not a “body” moisturizer.
  5. Keep hair gels, hairspray and other hair products away from your face as they can clog your pores. Wash your face after you use these products to keep oils away.

If you try these skin care tips and you’re still concerned about your skin, talk to your health care provider or see a dermatologist (skin specialist). There are treatments for acne.

And what are those tiny mystery bumps that don’t seem to be members of the pimple family? They might be skin-colored, hard, or don’t pop. Like a bumpy rash on your face, they’re stubborn and there’s a lot of them!


How to Identify

If you have small, hard, white bumps around your eyes, mouth, nose, cheeks or eyelids, they could be milia. These are tiny cysts that are filled with a protein called keratin and usually occur under the skin.

Shockingly, these are not small pimples on the face. They might look like small whiteheads, but without the accompanying redness of acne, and can seem frustrating because they don’t pop and don’t go away.

Milia are formed when dead skin cells are not exfoliated and get trapped beneath your skin’s surface, then end up forming tiny cysts. While people of any age can experience milia, it’s really common amongst babies, affecting 50% of newborns.

This is due to the fact that their new, delicate skin is still learning to exfoliate.

For us adults with seasoned skin, this trapping of dead skin cells happens for a number of reasons:

  • Under-exfoliating – If you’re not using an exfoliant in your skincare routine, you might not be effectively removing dead skin cells which can clog pores and lead to bumps and blemishes, as well as a duller complexion.
  • Using heavy moisturizers, cleansers, and creams – These products can confine dead skin cells and cause them to accumulate on your skin’s surface.
  • Sun damage – When your skin experiences damage from UV radiation, it breaks down and becomes thicker and more leathery. This makes it harder to remove dead skin. Say it with me: Always wear your daily SPF!
  • Not thoroughly cleansing – If you’re not properly removing all your makeup each day, it can build up and trap skin cells over time.

Treatment and Prevention

Although it’s tempting, do not go crazy trying to pop these little bumps to get rid of them. You’ll only damage skin and risk spreading infection, particularly if they’re on your eyelids.

Milia, in general, don’t go away. Consider consulting an esthetician to try a chemical peel, dermaplanning, or microdermabrasion since they’ll have access to stronger ingredients. If you still find that you’re struggling with milia, it might be time to see a dermatologist who can use a needle-like instrument to remove those pesky little bumps.

In the meantime, start with these remedies for smoother skin!

Cleanse and Exfoliate Thoroughly cleaning your skin every night is the most important prevention method! to ensure you’re completely removing makeup, tinted sunscreen, and other things that can hang around on your skin.

You can also make sure you’re getting skin super clean by either starting with a pre-cleanse to remove makeup, doing a combination of cleansing and exfoliating combo or a lather-rinse-repeat double cleanse to get rid of all that business.

You can try a gentle physical exfoliator which uses small granules to buff away dead skin cells. I would suggest you opt for a chemical exfoliant (not as harsh as it sounds) which uses ingredients or natural fruit enzymes to dissolve and remove dead skin. This encourages new cell turnover and keeps pores clog-free.

Look for lightweight formulas: Since thicker, richer moisturizers and cream cleansers can trap dead skin cells, stick with products that offer hydration without the weight. Look for formulas that include humectants such as hyaluronic acid and consider adding a serum to your routine which will deliver deep moisture to skin in a lightweight formula.

Wear your SPF: Keep skin healthy and supple by wearing sun protection every day. Yes. Every. Day. Bonus: You’ll also prevent skin aging and wrinkles, and protect yourself from the risk of scarier things such as skin cancer. Win-win!

Talk to your dermatologist: If nothing else seems to be working, make an appointment to talk to a skincare specialist who can treat milia using professional methods. Whatever you do, don’t put your skin at risk trying to remove them yourself!

Keratosis Pilaris

How to Identify

This skin condition is also referred to as “chicken skin” since it appears like goosebumps that don’t go away. According to Medscape, Keratosis pilaris (KP) affects nearly 50-80% of all adolescents and approximately 40% of adults.

These dry, hard bumps are typically white, red, or skin-colored and usually occur on arms and thighs, but also commonly affect the face and back. While they’re not painful, they can make skin feel itchy or irritated.


Keratosis pilaris is caused when keratin, which is naturally present in your hair follicles, builds up and plugs the follicle. There are a few reasons you might find yourself living with these little bumps:

  • Dry skin – Keratosis pilaris is made worse when skin is dry, particularly if it’s due to low humidity or cold weather (I see you, winter). When your skin is dried out, it can overproduce keratin in an attempt to moisturize and protect itself. This process jams up follicles, causing ingrown hairs and irritation. This is why these bumps sometimes appear red. Though people with any skin type can experience this condition, it commonly affects those that are prone to dry skin.
  • Chafing – These bumps can get irritated and made worse by tight clothing that causes chafing. When possible, wear clothing that is loose and breathable. That’s right, you just got one more justifiable reason for rocking your favorite comfy clothes!
  • Genetics – There’s also a genetic component, which means it’s pretty likely that someone in your family has KP and passed in on to you (thanks, Mom and Dad).

Treatment and Prevention

While it seems like a good idea to exfoliate these bumps away, it may just exacerbate the problem. As dermatologist Elizabeth Tanzi, MD explains, “People tend to over-exfoliate to get [the skin] smooth, and it just makes it worse, because it stimulates more bumps.”

Harsh exfoliants and cleansers can strip skin of natural moisture, and because KP is made worse when skin is dry, moisture is the name of the game.

Experts recommend using moisturizers that include active ingredients such as alpha hydroxy acids (glycolic acid), lactic acid, salicylic acid, and urea which will provide a mild exfoliating factor to keep follicles clear while moisturizing skin.

You can also try formulas containing Retin-A which will remove the top dead layers of skin and encourage new cell turnover and growth. Since this ingredient is a little stronger, make sure to follow directions for use which will likely advise that you start by applying it just a couple times a week until your skin acclimates.

Allergic Reactions

How to Identify

It’s possible that your skin is reacting to irritation caused by a makeup, skincare, or hair care product. Some dietary allergies, sensitivities, and intolerances can cause these tiny bumps on the skin.

Itchy Skin

Typically, the way to tell if bumps are a result of an allergy or reaction is that your skin will most likely feel itchy or irritated, and they won’t go away as quickly as acne does. Bumpy skin on the face may also be accompanied by redness or flaky/scaly patches.


When your body encounters an allergen or irritant, it triggers an immune response which can cause inflammation. This can be especially true if you have a sensitive skin type, or are susceptible to conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, or hives.

Treatment and Prevention

If you suspect that a food or product is causing an allergic reaction, it can be difficult to pinpoint the cause. Your best option is to talk to a doctor or allergist to determine exactly what’s causing a reaction.

It’s also a good idea to steer clear of any products that contain fragrances which play a large part in irritating the skin. You might also want to use products specifically formulated for sensitive skin.

Whenever you’re trying out a new product, do a test patch on a small area of skin and wait 24 to 48 hours to make sure you don’t have a reaction before applying to larger areas. I know, getting a new product is exciting and you want to use it right away, but better safe than sorry!




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